dmidecodeを使わずにCPUやメモリ、マザーボードのベンダーや型番といった情報を取得する

Linuxでハードウェアの情報(CPUやメモリの型番やマザーボードの型番、シリアルナンバーなど)を取得する場合、dmidecodeを使って取得する場合が多い…のだが、このdmidecodeが利用できない場合、どうやってマザーボードやCPU、メモリの情報を得ればいいだろう。というわけで、ちょっと調べてみた。

1.CPUについて

dmidecodeでは、以下のようにコマンドを実行することで、CPUのハードウェア情報を得ることができる。

dmidecode --type processor
# dmidecode --type processor
# dmidecode 2.12-dmifs
SMBIOS 2.7 present.
Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 42 bytes
Processor Information
Socket Designation: SOCKET 0
Type: Central Processor
Family: Xeon
Manufacturer: Intel
ID: D7 06 02 00 FF FB EB BF
Signature: Type 0, Family 6, Model 45, Stepping 7
Flags:
FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
VME (Virtual mode extension)
DE (Debugging extension)
PSE (Page size extension)
TSC (Time stamp counter)
MSR (Model specific registers)
PAE (Physical address extension)
MCE (Machine check exception)
CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)
SEP (Fast system call)
MTRR (Memory type range registers)
PGE (Page global enable)
MCA (Machine check architecture)
CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)
PAT (Page attribute table)
PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)
DS (Debug store)
ACPI (ACPI supported)
MMX (MMX technology supported)
FXSR (FXSAVE and FXSTOR instructions supported)
SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)
SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
SS (Self-snoop)
HTT (Multi-threading)
TM (Thermal monitor supported)
PBE (Pending break enabled)
Version: Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2670 0 @ 2.60GHz
Voltage: 0.0 V
External Clock: 100 MHz
Max Speed: 4000 MHz
Current Speed: 2600 MHz
Status: Populated, Enabled
Upgrade: Socket LGA2011
L1 Cache Handle: 0x0005
L2 Cache Handle: 0x0006
L3 Cache Handle: 0x0007
Serial Number: Not Specified
Asset Tag: Not Specified
Part Number: Not Specified
Core Count: 8
Core Enabled: 8
Thread Count: 16
Characteristics:
64-bit capable
Handle 0x0008, DMI type 4, 42 bytes
Processor Information
Socket Designation: SOCKET 1
Type: Central Processor
Family: Xeon
Manufacturer: Intel
ID: D7 06 02 00 FF FB EB BF
Signature: Type 0, Family 6, Model 45, Stepping 7
Flags:
FPU (Floating-point unit on-chip)
VME (Virtual mode extension)
DE (Debugging extension)
PSE (Page size extension)
TSC (Time stamp counter)
MSR (Model specific registers)
PAE (Physical address extension)
MCE (Machine check exception)
CX8 (CMPXCHG8 instruction supported)
APIC (On-chip APIC hardware supported)
SEP (Fast system call)
MTRR (Memory type range registers)
PGE (Page global enable)
MCA (Machine check architecture)
CMOV (Conditional move instruction supported)
PAT (Page attribute table)
PSE-36 (36-bit page size extension)
CLFSH (CLFLUSH instruction supported)
DS (Debug store)
ACPI (ACPI supported)
MMX (MMX technology supported)
FXSR (FXSAVE and FXSTOR instructions supported)
SSE (Streaming SIMD extensions)
SSE2 (Streaming SIMD extensions 2)
SS (Self-snoop)
HTT (Multi-threading)
TM (Thermal monitor supported)
PBE (Pending break enabled)
Version: Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2670 0 @ 2.60GHz
Voltage: 0.0 V
External Clock: 100 MHz
Max Speed: 4000 MHz
Current Speed: 2600 MHz
Status: Populated, Enabled
Upgrade: Socket LGA2011
L1 Cache Handle: 0x0009
L2 Cache Handle: 0x000A
L3 Cache Handle: 0x000B
Serial Number: Not Specified
Asset Tag: Not Specified
Part Number: Not Specified
Core Count: 8
Core Enabled: 8
Thread Count: 16
Characteristics:
64-bit capable

 

dmidecodeを使わずにCPUに関する同様の情報を得る場合は、/proc/cpuinfoファイルから取得できる。
以下、KVM上で取得した際の実行例。

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor       : 0
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 15
model           : 6
model name      : Common KVM processor
stepping        : 1
microcode       : 0x1
cpu MHz         : 1999.958
cache size      : 4096 KB
physical id     : 0
siblings        : 2
core id         : 0
cpu cores       : 2
apicid          : 0
initial apicid  : 0
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 13
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx lm constant_tsc nopl pni cx16 x2apic hypervisor lahf_lm
bugs            :
bogomips        : 3999.91
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 128
address sizes   : 40 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:
processor       : 1
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 15
model           : 6
model name      : Common KVM processor
stepping        : 1
microcode       : 0x1
cpu MHz         : 1999.958
cache size      : 4096 KB
physical id     : 0
siblings        : 2
core id         : 1
cpu cores       : 2
apicid          : 1
initial apicid  : 1
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 13
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx lm constant_tsc nopl pni cx16 x2apic hypervisor lahf_lm
bugs            :
bogomips        : 3999.91
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 128
address sizes   : 40 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management:
Sponsored Links

ただ型番やコア数だけが知りたい場合だと、このままではちょっと見にくいので、少々加工しよう。
Model Nameのみを抽出して、かつ集計をすることで、コア数(スレッド数)もわかるようになる。
KVMのだと味気ないので、仮想基盤で使ってるProxmoxのを例にする。一番左がコア数。

awk -F: '/model name/{print $2}' /proc/cpuinfo | uniq -c
root@BS-PHY-PROX-01:~# awk -F: '/model name/{print $2}' /proc/cpuinfo | uniq -c
24  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU           L5640  @ 2.27GHz

2.メモリについて

dmidecodeでは、以下のようにコマンドを実行することで、刺さっているメモリの情報を得ることができる(対応していれば、メモリのメーカーだったり型番も得られる)。

dmidecode --type memory
# dmidecode --type memory
# dmidecode 2.12-dmifs
SMBIOS 2.7 present.
Handle 0x0015, DMI type 16, 23 bytes
Physical Memory Array
Location: System Board Or Motherboard
Use: System Memory
Error Correction Type: Multi-bit ECC
Maximum Capacity: 128 GB
Error Information Handle: Not Provided
Number Of Devices: 8
Handle 0x0017, DMI type 17, 34 bytes
Memory Device
Array Handle: 0x0015
Error Information Handle: Not Provided
Total Width: 72 bits
Data Width: 64 bits
Size: 8192 MB
Form Factor: DIMM
Set: None
Locator: P1_DIMMA1
Bank Locator: Node0_Bank0
Type: DDR3
Type Detail: Registered (Buffered)
Speed: 1333 MHz
Manufacturer: Samsung
Serial Number: 837446CD
Asset Tag: Dimm0_AssetTag
Part Number: M393B1K70CH0-
Rank: 1
Configured Clock Speed: 1333 MHz
…

 

単純に、搭載している(使える)メモリ容量だけを見るのならfreeコマンドや/proc/meminfoで得られる。

free -h | awk '/^Mem/{print $2}'
cat /proc/meminfo | awk '/^MemTotal/{print $2}' | xargs -I@ echo "@ * 1024" | bc | numfmt --to=iec

 

そうじゃない、dmidecodeのように、メモリ何本刺さってるんだかとか、知れるならメモリのメーカーとかを知りたいんだ、といったについては、/sys配下を調べてみたのだが見つけられなかった。
どっかには情報あると思うんだけどなぁ…(dmidecode自体は/dev/mem配下から情報を取ってきてるようなのだが…)。

3.マザーボード・BIOSについて

dmidecodeでは、以下のようにコマンドを実行することでマザーボードやBIOSの情報を得ることができる。
ここから、KVMとか使ってることを推測可能(それだと面白く無いので、実行例は手元の環境で実行)。

dmidecode -t BIOS
dmidecode -t System
dmidecode -t BaseBoard
root@BS-PHY-PROX-01:~# dmidecode -t BIOS
# dmidecode 2.12
SMBIOS 2.5 present.
Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes
BIOS Information
Vendor: FUJITSU // Phoenix Technologies Ltd.
Version: 6.00 Rev. 1.04.2619.N1
Release Date: 05/18/2010
Address: 0xE4120
Runtime Size: 114400 bytes
ROM Size: 2048 kB
Characteristics:
PCI is supported
PNP is supported
BIOS is upgradeable
BIOS shadowing is allowed
ESCD support is available
Boot from CD is supported
Selectable boot is supported
EDD is supported
Print screen service is supported (int 5h)
8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)
Serial services are supported (int 14h)
Printer services are supported (int 17h)
CGA/mono video services are supported (int 10h)
ACPI is supported
USB legacy is supported
BIOS boot specification is supported
Targeted content distribution is supported
BIOS Revision: 1.4
Handle 0x0029, DMI type 13, 22 bytes
BIOS Language Information
Language Description Format: Long
Installable Languages: 1
en|US|iso8859-1
Currently Installed Language: en|US|iso8859-1
root@BS-PHY-PROX-01:~# dmidecode -t System
# dmidecode 2.12
SMBIOS 2.5 present.
Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
System Information
Manufacturer: FUJITSU-SV
Product Name: PRIMERGY
Version: GS01
Serial Number: MA6T003081
UUID: FA32B660-6CF2-11DF-A847-00199982CD2A
Wake-up Type: Power Switch
SKU Number: S26361-K1344-Vxxx
Family: SERVER
Handle 0x0028, DMI type 12, 5 bytes
System Configuration Options
Option 1: DIP1 ON: Recovery BIOS active
Option 2: DIP2 ON: Reserved
Option 3: DIP3 ON: Flash BIOS write protect
Option 4: DIP4 ON: Reserved
Handle 0x0050, DMI type 32, 11 bytes
System Boot Information
Status: No errors detected
root@BS-PHY-PROX-01:~# dmidecode -t BaseBoard
# dmidecode 2.12
SMBIOS 2.5 present.
Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 109 bytes
Base Board Information
Manufacturer: FUJITSU
Product Name: D2619
Version: S26361-D2619-N15 WGS10 GS01
Serial Number: 33260167
Asset Tag: -
Features:
Board is a hosting board
Board is removable
Location In Chassis: -
Chassis Handle: 0x0003
Type: Motherboard
Contained Object Handles: 47
0x0004
0x0005
0x000E
0x000F
0x0010
0x0011
0x0012
0x0013
0x0014
0x0015
0x0016
0x0017
0x0018
0x0019
0x001A
0x001B
0x001C
0x001D
0x001E
0x001F
0x0020
0x0021
0x0022
0x0023
0x0024
0x0025
0x0026
0x0027
0x0028
0x002D
0x002E
0x002F
0x0030
0x0031
0x0032
0x0033
0x0034
0x0035
0x0036
0x0037
0x0038
0x0039
0x003A
0x003B
0x003C
0x003D
0x003E
Handle 0x0026, DMI type 10, 10 bytes
On Board Device 1 Information
Type: Video
Status: Disabled
Description: MATROX
On Board Device 2 Information
Type: Ethernet
Status: Disabled
Description: Intel 82575EB
On Board Device 3 Information
Type: Other
Status: Disabled
Description: IPMI iRMC S2

 

で、これら型番やシリアルナンバーをdmidecode使わずに得る場合、以下のディレクトリにあるファイルからある程度得ることができる。
(地味にdmidecodeで得た情報には載ってないサーバの型番が載ってたりする。)

/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/
root@BS-PHY-PROX-01:~# grep -R '' /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_name:PRIMERGY
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_uuid:FA32B660-6CF2-11DF-A847-00199982CD2A
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/board_name:D2619
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/board_asset_tag:-
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/control:auto
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/async:disabled
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_enabled:disabled
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_active_kids:0
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_active_time:0
grep: /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/autosuspend_delay_ms: Input/output error
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_status:unsupported
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_usage:0
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/power/runtime_suspended_time:0
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/chassis_serial:MA6T003081
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_version:GS01
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/chassis_vendor:FUJITSU-SV
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/modalias:dmi:bvnFUJITSU//PhoenixTechnologiesLtd.:bvr6.00Rev.1.04.2619.N1:bd05/18/2010:svnFUJITSU-SV:pnPRIMERGY:pvrGS01:rvnFUJITSU:rnD2619:rvrS26361-D2619-N15WGS10GS01:cvnFUJITSU-SV:ct23:cvrRX300S6R1:
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/chassis_version:RX300S6R1
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/bios_date:05/18/2010
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/bios_version:6.00 Rev. 1.04.2619.N1
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_serial:MA6T003081
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/sys_vendor:FUJITSU-SV
grep: warning: /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/subsystem/id: recursive directory loop
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/bios_vendor:FUJITSU // Phoenix Technologies Ltd.
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/board_serial:33260167
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/uevent:MODALIAS=dmi:bvnFUJITSU//PhoenixTechnologiesLtd.:bvr6.00Rev.1.04.2619.N1:bd05/18/2010:svnFUJITSU-SV:pnPRIMERGY:pvrGS01:rvnFUJITSU:rnD2619:rvrS26361-D2619-N15WGS10GS01:cvnFUJITSU-SV:ct23:cvrRX300S6R1:
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/chassis_asset_tag:MA6T003081
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/chassis_type:23
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/board_vendor:FUJITSU
/sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/board_version:S26361-D2619-N15 WGS10 GS01

 

基本、dmidecode使えればなんとかなると思うが、使えない環境から色々と推測する際に利用できるのでは無いだろうか。

 


Written by blacknon

インフラ系のSE。一時期はプログラマ。 仮想化とオープンソースに興味あり。一日中寝てたい今日このごろ。 スペインとかで働きたいなぁ…(シエスタがあるので)

Leave a Comment

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。

*